# webview.create_window

webview.create_window(title, url=None, html=None, js_api=None, width=800, height=600,
                      x=None, y=None, screen=None, resizable=True, fullscreen=False,
                      min_size=(200, 100), hidden=False, frameless=False,
                      easy_drag=True, shadow=False, focus=True, minimized=False, maximized=False,
                      on_top=False, confirm_close=False, background_color='#FFFFFF',
                      transparent=False, text_select=False, zoomable=False,
                      draggable=False, server=http.BottleServer, server_args={},

Create a new pywebview window and returns its instance. Can be used to create multiple windows (except Android). Window is not shown until the GUI loop is started. If the function is invoked during the GUI loop, the window is displayed immediately.

  • title - Window title
  • url - URL to load. If the URL does not have a protocol prefix, it is resolved as a path relative to the application entry point. Alternatively a WSGI server object can be passed to start a local web server.
  • html - HTML code to load. If both URL and HTML are specified, HTML takes precedence.
  • js_api - Expose a python object to the Javascript domain of the current pywebview window. Methods of the js_api object can be invoked from Javascript by calling window.pywebview.api.<methodname>(<parameters>) functions. Exposed function return a promise that return once function returns. Only basic Python objects (like int, str, dict, ...) can be returned to Javascript.
  • width - Window width. Default is 800px.
  • height - Window height. Default is 600px.
  • x - Window x coordinate. Default is centered.
  • y - Window y coordinate. Default is centered.
  • screen - Screen to display window on. screen is a screen instance returned by webview.screens.
  • resizable - Whether window can be resized. Default is True
  • fullscreen - Start in fullscreen mode. Default is False
  • min_size - a (width, height) tuple that specifies a minimum window size. Default is 200x100
  • hidden - Create a window hidden by default. Default is False
  • frameless - Create a frameless window. Default is False.
  • easy_drag - Easy drag mode for frameless windows. Window can be moved by dragging any point. Default is True. Note that easy_drag has no effect with normal windows. To control dragging on an element basis, see drag area for details.
  • shadow - Add window shadow. Default is False. Windows only.
  • focus - Create a non-focusable window if False. Default is True.
  • minimized - Display window minimized
  • maximized - Display window maximized
  • on_top - Set window to be always on top of other windows. Default is False.
  • confirm_close - Whether to display a window close confirmation dialog. Default is False
  • background_color - Background color of the window displayed before WebView is loaded. Specified as a hex color. Default is white.
  • transparent - Create a transparent window. Not supported on Windows. Default is False. Note that this setting does not hide or make window chrome transparent. To hide window chrome set frameless to True.
  • text_select - Enables document text selection. Default is False. To control text selection on per element basis, use user-select (opens new window) CSS property.
  • zoomable - Enable document zooming. Default is False
  • draggable - Enable image and link object dragging. Default is False server=http.BottleServer, server_args
  • vibrancy - Enable window vibrancy. Default is False. macOS only.
  • server - A custom WSGI server instance for this window. Defaults to BottleServer.
  • server_args - Dictionary of arguments to pass through to the server instantiation
  • localization - pass a localization dictionary for per window localization.

# webview.start

webview.start(func=None, args=None, localization={}, gui=None, debug=False,
              http_server=False, http_port=None, user_agent=None, private_mode=True,
              storage_path=None, menu=[], server=http.BottleServer, ssl=False,

Start a GUI loop and display previously created windows. This function must be called from a main thread.

  • func - function to invoke upon starting the GUI loop.
  • args - function arguments. Can be either a single value or a tuple of values.
  • localization - a dictionary with localized strings. Default strings and their keys are defined in localization.py
  • gui - force a specific GUI. Allowed values are cef, qt or gtk depending on a platform. See Renderer for details.
  • debug - enable debug mode. See Debugging for details.
  • http_server - enable built-in HTTP server for absolute local paths. For relative paths HTTP server is started automatically and cannot be disabled. For each window, a separate HTTP server is spawned. This option is ignored for non-local URLs.
  • http_port - specify a port number for the HTTP server. By default port is randomized.
  • user_agent - change user agent string.
  • private_mode - Control whether cookies and other persistant objects are stored between session. By default private mode is on and nothing is stored between sessions.
  • storage_path - An optional location on hard drive where to store persistant objects like cookies and local storage. By default ~/.pywebview is used on *nix systems and %APPDATA%\pywebview on Windows.
  • menu - Pass a list of Menu objects to create an application menu. See this example for usage details.
  • server - A custom WSGI server instance. Defaults to BottleServer.
  • ssl - If using the default BottleServer (and for now the GTK backend), will use SSL encryption between the webview and the internal server. Cocoa/QT/GTK only.
  • server_args - Dictionary of arguments to pass through to the server instantiation

# Examples

# webview.screens


Return a list of available displays (as Screen objects) with the primary display as the first element of the list.

# Examples

# webview.settings

webview.settings = {

Additional options that override default behaviour of pywebview to address popular feature requests.

  • ALLOW_DOWNLOADS Allow file downloads. Disabled by default.
  • ALLOW_FILE_URLS Enable file:// urls. Disabled by default.
  • OPEN_EXTERNAL_LINKS_IN_BROWSER. Open target=_blank link in an external browser. Enabled by default.
  • OPEN_DEVTOOLS_IN_DEBUG Open devtools automatically in debug mode. Enabled by default.

# Examples

# webview.token


A CSRF token property unique to the session. The same token is exposed as window.pywebview.token. See Security for usage details.

# webview.dom

# webview.dom.DOMEventHandler

DOMEventHandler(callback, prevent_default=False, stop_propagation=False, stop_immediate_propagation=False)

A container for an event handler used to control propagation or default behaviour of the event.

# Examples

element.events.click += DOMEventHandler(on_click, prevent_default=True, stop_propagation=True, stop_immediate_propagation=True)

# webview.dom.ManipulationMode

Enum that sets the position of a manipulated DOM element. Possible values are:

  • LastChild - element is inserted as a last child of the target
  • FirstChild - element is inserted as a firt child of the target
  • Before - element is inserted before the target
  • After - element is inserted after the target
  • Replace - element is inserted replacing the target

Used by element.append, element.copy, element.move and window.dom.create_element functions.

# webview.Element

# element.attributes

Get or modify element's attributes. attributes is a PropsDict dict-like object that implements most of dict functions. To add an attribute, you can simply assign a value to a key in attributes. Similarly, to remove an attribute, you can set its value to None.

# Examples
element.attributes['id'] = 'container-id' # set element's id
element.attributes['data-flag'] = '1337'
element.attributes['id'] = None # remove element's id
del element.attributes['data-flag'] # remove element's data-flag attribute

# element.classes


Get or set element's classes. classes is a ClassList list-like object that implements a subset of list functions like append, remove and clear. Additionally it has a toggle function for toggling a class.

# Examples
element.classes = ['container', 'red', 'dotted'] # overwrite element's classes
element.classes.remove('red') # remove red class
element.classes.add('blue') # add blue class

# element.append

element.append(html, mode=webview.dom.ManipulationMode.LastChild)

Insert html content to the element as a last child. To control the position of the new element, use the mode parameter. See Manipulation mode for possible values.

# element.blur


Blur element.

# element.children


Get element's children elements. Returns a list of Element objects.

# element.copy

element.copy(target=None, mode=webview.dom.ManipulationMode.LastChild, id=None)

Create a new copy of the element. target can be either another Element or a DOM selector string. If target is omitted, a copy is created in the current element's parent. To control the position of the new element, use the mode parameter. See Manipulation mode for possible values. The id parameter is stripped from the copy. Optionally you can set the id of the copy by specifying the id parameter.

# element.empty


Empty element by removing all its children.

# element.events


A container object of element's all DOM events, ie events.click, event.keydown. This container is dynamically populated and its contents depend on the events a node has. To subscribe to a DOM event, use the += syntax, e.g. element.events.click += callback. Similarly to remove an event listener use -=, eg. element.events.click -= callback. Callback can be either a function or an instance of DOMEventHandler if you need to control propagation of the event.

# element.focus


Focus element.

# element.focused


Get whether the element is focused.

# element.hide


Hide element by setting display: none.

# element.id


Get or set element's id. None if id is not set.

# element.move

element.move(target, mode=webview.dom.ManipulationMode.LastChild)

Move element to the target that can be either another Element or a DOM selector string. To control the position of the new element, use the mode parameter. See Manipulation mode for possible values.

# Examples

DOM Manipulation

# element.next


Get element's next sibling. None if no sibling is present.

# element.off

element.off(event, callback)

Remove an event listener. Identical to element.event.event_name -= callback.

# Examples

# these two are identical
element.off('click', callback_func)
element.events.click -= callback_func

DOM Events

# element.on

element.on(event, callback)

Add an event listener to a DOM event. Callback can be either a function or an instance of DOMEventHandler if you need to control propagation of the event. Identical to element.event.event_name += callback.

# Examples

# these two are identical
element.on('click', callback_func)
element.events.click += callback_func

DOM Events

# element.parent


Get element's parent Element or None if root element is reached.

# element.previous


Get element's previous sibling. None if no sibling is present.

# element.remove


Remove element from DOM. Element object is not destroyed, but marked as removed. Trying to access any properties or invoke any functions of the element will result in a warning.

DOM Manipulation

# element.show


Show hidden element. If element was hidden with element.hide(), a previous display value is restored. Otherwise display: block is set.

DOM Manipulation

# element.style

Get or modify element's styles. style is a PropsDict dict-like object that implements most of dict functions. To add a style declraration, you can simply assign a value to a key in attributes. Similarly, to reset a declaration, you can set its value to None.

# Examples

element.style['width'] = '100px' # set element's width to 100px
element.style['display'] = 'flex' # set element's display property to flex
element.style['width'] = None # reset width to auto
del element.attributes['display'] # reset display property to block

# element.tabindex


Get or set element's tabindex.

# element.tag


Get element's tag name.

# element.text


Get or set element's text content.

# element.toggle


Toggle element's visibility.

# element.value


Get or set element's value. Applicable only to input elements that have a value.

# element.visible


Get whether the element is visible.

# webview.Menu

Used to create an application menu. See this example for usage details.

Menu(title, items=[]). Instantiate to create a menu that can be either top level menu or a nested menu. title is the title of the menu and items is a list of actions, separators or other menus.

MenuAction(title, function) Instantiate to create a menu item. title is the name of the item and function is a callback that should be called when menu action is clicked.

MenuSeparator(title, function) Instantiate to create a menu separator.

# webview.Screen

Represents a display found on the system.

# screen.height


Get display height.

# screen.width


Get display width.

# webview.Window

Represents a window that hosts webview. window object is returned by create_window function.

# window.title


Get or set title of the window.

# window.on_top


Get or set whether the window is always on top.

# window.x


Get X coordinate of the top-left corrner of the window.

# window.y


Get Y coordinate of the top-left corrner of the window.

# window.width


Get width of the window

# window.height


Get height of the window

# window.clear_cookies


Clear all the cookies including HttpOnly ones.

# Example

# window.create_confirmation_dialog

window.create_confirmation_dialog(title, message)

Create a confirmation (Ok / Cancel) dialog.

# window.create_file_dialog

window.create_file_dialog(dialog_type=OPEN_DIALOG, directory='', allow_multiple=False, save_filename='', file_types=())

Create an open file (webview.OPEN_DIALOG), open folder (webview.FOLDER_DIALOG) or save file (webview.SAVE_DIALOG) dialog.

Return a tuple of selected files, None if cancelled.

  • allow_multiple=True enables multiple selection.
  • directory Initial directory.
  • save_filename Default filename for save file dialog.
  • file_types A tuple of supported file type strings in the open file dialog. A file type string must follow this format "Description (*.ext1;*.ext2...)".

If the argument is not specified, then the "All files (*.*)" mask is used by default. The 'All files' string can be changed in the localization dictionary.

# Examples

# window.destroy


Destroy the window.


# window.evaluate_js

window.evaluate_js(script, callback=None)

Execute Javascript code. The last evaluated expression is returned. If callback function is supplied, then promises are resolved and the callback function is called with the result as a parameter. Javascript types are converted to Python types, eg. JS objects to dicts, arrays to lists, undefined to None. Functions are omitted and circular references are converted to the [Circular Reference] string literal. webview.error.JavascriptException is thrown if executed codes raises an error. r-strings is a recommended way to load Javascript.

# window.expose

Expose a Python function or functions to JS API. Functions are exposed as window.pywebview.api.func_name


# window.get_cookies


Return a list of all the cookies set for the current website (as SimpleCookie (opens new window)).

# window.get_current_url


Return the current URL. None if no url is loaded.


# window.get_elements


DEPRECATED. Use window.dom.get_elements instead.


# window.hide


Hide the window.


# window.load_css


Load CSS as a string.


# window.load_html

window.load_html(content, base_uri=base_uri())

Load HTML code. Base URL for resolving relative URLs is set to the directory the program is launched from. Note that you cannot use hashbang anchors when HTML is loaded this way.


# window.load_url


Load a new URL.


# window.maximize


Maximize window.


# window.minimize


Minimize window.


# window.move

window.move(x, y)

Move window to a new position.


# window.resize

window.resize(width, height, fix_point=FixPoint.NORTH | FixPoint.WEST)

Resize window. Optional parameter fix_point specifies in respect to which point the window is resized. The parameter accepts values of the webview.window.FixPoint enum (NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, WEST)


# window.restore


Restore minimized window.


# window.set_title


DEPRECATED. Use window.title instead. Change the title of the window.


# window.show


Show the window if it is hidden. Has no effect otherwise


# window.toggle_fullscreen


Toggle fullscreen mode on the active monitor.


# window.dom.body


Get document's body as an Element object

# window.dom.create_element

window.create_element(html, parent=None, mode=webview.dom.ManipulationMode.LastChild)

Insert html content and returns the Element of the root object. parent can be either another Element or a DOM selector string. If parent is omited, created DOM is attached to document's body. To control the position of the new element, use the mode parameter. See Manipulation mode for possible values.

# window.dom.document


Get window.document of the loaded page as an Element object

# window.dom.get_element

window.get_element(selector: str)

Get a first Element matching the selector. None if not found.

# window.dom.get_elements

window.get_elements(selector: str)

Get a list of Element objects matching the selector.

# window.dom.window

Get DOM document's window window as an Element object

# Window events

Window object exposes a number of lifecycle and window management events. To subscribe to an event, use the += syntax, e.g. window.events.loaded += func. Duplicate subscriptions are ignored and function is invoked only once for duplicate subscribers. To unsubscribe, use the -= syntax, window.events.loaded -= func. To access the window object from the event handler, you can supply window parameter as a first positional argument of the handler.

# window.events.closed

Event fired just before pywebview window is closed.


# window.events.closing

Event fired when pywebview window is about to be closed. If confirm_close is set, then this event is fired before the close confirmation is displayed. If event handler returns False, the close operation will be cancelled.


# window.events.loaded

Event fired when DOM is ready.


# window.events.minimized

Event fired when window is minimized.


# window.events.restore

Event fired when window is restored.


# window.events.maximized

Event fired when window is maximized (fullscreen on macOS)

# window.events.resized

Event fired when pywebview window is resized. Event handler can either have no or accept (width, height) arguments.


# window.events.shown

Event fired when pywebview window is shown.


# DOM events

pywebview exposes a window.pywebviewready DOM event that is fired after window.pywebview is created.


# Drag area

With a frameless pywebview window, A window can be moved or dragged by adding a special class called pywebview-drag-region in your html

<div class='pywebview-drag-region'>This div element can be used to moved or drag your window like a native OS window</div>

The magic class name can be overriden by re-assigning the webview.DRAG_REGION_SELECTOR constant.